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Reading Difficulty and Reading Education

Reading difficulties can make educators, schools, parents and students frustrated.  It is estimated, from a national study, that more than seventeen percent of young children will encounter a problem learning to read (NCITE 1996).  Additionally a National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) report of 1994 indicated that all schools in the US have a number of children who are failing the task of learning to read.  In the report it was found that  42% of fourth-graders, 31% of eighth-graders and 30% of twelfth-graders were reading at a "below basic" level (NAEP 1998). To help students with reading fluency, teachers need to provide and monitor oral reading. To achieve this goal for reading, teachers can assist students by increasing practice though audiotapes and other technologies (NIFL 2002), of which eBooks would be an excellent application. It has also been found that availability of books is a key factor in reading achievement. Higher scoring countries, for reading, have students who have greater access to books (Elley 1992).  There is additional data that supports indicates this need for book access by students, Krashen (1995) found a positive correlation between reading comprehension scores and number of books per student in school libraries. 

Reading Strategies

Global Reading Strategies (Mokhtari & Sheorey) 

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Read with a purpose in mind

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Think about what I know to help me understand what I read (pre-information)

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Over all view of the text to see what itís about before reading

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Decide whether the content of the text fits the reading purpose

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Review the text first by noting characteristics including length and organization

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When reading decide what to read closely and what to ignore.

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Use tables, figures, and pictures in the text to increase understanding

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Use context clues to help better understand the reading

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Use typographical features like bold face and italics to identify key features

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Critically analyze and evaluate the information presented in the text

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Check understanding when coming across new information

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Guess what the content of the text is about when reading

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Check to see if guesses about the text are correct

Problem Solving Strategies

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Read slowly and carefully to make sure I understand what Iím reading

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Try to get back on track when distracted or lose concentration

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Adjust reading speed according to the reading material

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When text becomes difficult, pay closer attention to the material

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Stop from time to time and think about the reading

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Try to picture or visualize information to assist in remembering

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When text becomes difficult, re-read to increase understanding

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When reading, guess the meaning of unknown words or phrases

Support Reading Strategies
The terms in [brackets] indicate an eBook support format

bullet Take notes while reading to assist in understanding [Note/text box]  
bullet When text becomes difficult, read aloud to assist in understanding  [Text-to-Speech]
bullet Underline or mark-up information in the text  to assist in remembering  [Highlighting]
bullet Use reference materials (dictionaries, etc.)   [Interactive dictionaries/Hyperlinks]
bullet Paraphrase/restate to better understand
bullet Go back and forth in the text to find relationships among ideas  [Bookmark]
bullet Ask self questions to find answers in the text

Additional Reading Supports for digital text and eBooks

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Copy and paste out notes

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Have text read aloud to you

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 Interactive dictionary for just-in-time word look-up

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Hypertext to web sites for additional information

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Adjusting size of text for readability

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 Auto summarize text

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Printing of marked selections

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Auto indexing

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Searching within a document for specific text (find-find next)

 eBooks in Education

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Copyright © 2006 Drs.Cavanaugh  Last modified: March 06, 2008